Saving Nineveh and Nimrud from ISIS

Fate of Iraq’s archaeological treasures of Nineveh and Nimrud is an issue above all for Iraqi people.

The wanton destruction of ancient sites overrun by the Islamic State (ISIS) after it swept into Iraq in 2014 is worse than first feared, according to Iraqi officials who are appealing for international assistance to salvage the country’s archaeological heritage.

Qais Rasheed, Iraq’s deputy Cul­ture minister, said during a Paris conference hosted by the United Nations’ cultural agency UNESCO that ISIS had destroyed up to 70% of remains at Nineveh and 80% at Nimrud.

Nineveh, on the outskirts of mod­ern Mosul and the site of an ancient Assyrian city, was recaptured by Iraqi forces in mid-January. The an­cient Assyrian city of Nimrud, 32km south of Mosul, was liberated in No­vember.

In Iraq, as in Syria, ISIS used so-called settlement battalions to delib­erately target religious buildings and shrines it deems un-Islamic, as well as ancient remains that long predate Islam.

“It’s not just one monument de­stroyed by one event,” UNESCO As­sistant Director-General Francesco Bandarin said at the conference in Paris in February. “We’re talking about an entire region that has suf­fered for years a massive devasta­tion.”

Video of militants hacking at the remains of civilisations dating back thousands of years figured promi­nently in ISIS’s online propaganda from the start of its expansion. This scorched-earth policy has continued as its forces retreat in the face of the Iraqi counteroffensive.

The sincerity of the militants’ de­sire to purge their self-proclaimed caliphate of its “polytheistic” herit­age has to be set against the reality of their thriving traffic in ancient ar­tefacts to fund their enterprise.

At the same time as they were filming each other dynamiting and bulldozing carvings, statues and buildings that had survived for up to 3,000 years, other members were hiding away movable treasures with a view to their eventual sale on the international black market.

Iraqi Education Minister Muham­mad Iqbal Omar appealed in Paris for international help to clamp down on the illicit trade and to abide by UN Security Council Resolution 2199, which bans cultural trade from Iraq and Syria in an effort to dry up ISIS’s cash flow.

The fate of Iraq’s archaeological treasures is an issue above all for the Iraqi people. The ISIS destruction is seen in part as a strategy of demor­alising the communities that fell un­der the terror group’s control.

Given Iraq’s status as a birthplace of civilisation, it is also an interna­tional issue. At the height of the destruction, UNESCO Director-Gen­eral Irina Bokova described Iraq as “a vast museum that encompasses some of humanity’s cultural herit­age and generously presents it to the world despite all the prevailing chal­lenges”.

Hence the involvement of foreign experts and institutions in preserv­ing what remains from what Bokova described as “cultural cleansing” by ISIS.

Among the institutions involved is the British Museum, which runs a government-funded programme for Iraq emergency heritage manage­ment training.

In January, the museum hosted the latest batch of Iraqi archaeolo­gists who had travelled to London for training in the latest digital and excavation skills they will need to salvage and repair sites that ISIS sought to destroy.

In a way, it is payback time for institutions such as the British Mu­seum.

From the 19th century, Western ar­chaeologists, some little better than treasure hunters, plundered Iraq in a spree that involved many of its most precious artefacts ending up on dis­play in London, Berlin or Paris.

What remained survived war and revolution under post-colonial gov­ernments, and new discoveries con­tinue to be made.

Until he was toppled by the US-led invasion of 2003, Iraqi leader Saddam Hussein fostered a person­ality cult in which he sought to por­tray himself as the reincarnation of ancient Mesopotamian rulers. That included the construction of a some­what kitsch version of Babylon near the actual site outside Baghdad but it wrought no permanent damage.

The worst depredations came as a result of the 2003 US invasion that overthrew Saddam and unleashed widespread looting of museums and historic sites in which priceless treasures vanished.

Foreign archaeologists have been engaged with local colleagues to unveil the secrets still buried across Iraq, subject to the limitations im­posed by war and political unrest.

Known sites may represent just the tip of an iceberg of sites and arte­facts yet to be uncovered.

Experts, for example, have an in­exact knowledge of the northern Iraq site of the Battle of Gaugamela where Alexander the Great’s forces defeated Persia’s King Darius in 331BC.

Outside the ISIS battle zone, work has continued at locations designat­ed as world heritage sites. Restora­tion of the citadel that looms above Erbil in Iraqi Kurdistan, continu­ously inhabited for 6,000 years, has been under way for a decade.

In 2015, a British team uncovered the remains of the world’s oldest trading centre among the still largely unexplored ruins of Ur that date to the second millennium BC. Else­where other such discoveries are be­ing made.

In a comforting irony that ISIS will not have intended, the damage the jihadists caused to the Mosque of Younis (Jonah) in Mosul has revealed an even older treasure.

Beneath the wrecked mosque, which ISIS rigged with explosives in mid-2014, Iraqi archaeologists recently discovered carvings and inscriptions linking the site to the Assyrian empire and the seventh century BC.

Image: AFP

Article: The Arab Weekly